Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles RSS Feed for Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles en-us Frontiers Feed Generator,version:1 2020-07-10T23:19:52.0252565+00:00 60 Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-07-09T00:00:00Z Lacramioara Fabian James J. Dowling LAMA2-related congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD; LAMA2-MD), also referred to as merosin deficient CMD (MDC1A), is a severe neonatal onset muscle disease caused by recessive mutations in the LAMA2 gene. LAMA2 encodes laminin α2, a subunit of the extracellular matrix (ECM) oligomer laminin 211. There are currently no treatments for MDC1A, and there is an incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis. Zebrafish, due to their high degree of genetic conservation with humans, large clutch sizes, rapid development, and optical clarity, have emerged as an excellent model system for studying rare Mendelian diseases. They are particularly suitable as a model for muscular dystrophy because they contain at least one orthologue to all major human MD genes, have muscle that is similar to human muscle in structure and function, and manifest obvious and easily measured MD related phenotypes. In this review article, we present the existing zebrafish models of MDC1A, and discuss their contribution to the understanding of MDC1A pathomechanisms and therapy development.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-07-06T00:00:00Z Cláudia C. Miranda Tiago Barata Sandra H. Vaz Carla Ferreira Alexandre Quintas Evguenia P. Bekman Phytocannabinoids are psychotropic substances ofcannabis with the ability to bind endocannabinoid (eCB) receptors that regulate synaptic activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are synthetic analogs of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the psychotropic compound of cannabis, acting as agonists of eCB receptor CB1. SC is an easily available and popular alternative to cannabis, and their molecular structure is always changing, increasing the hazard for the general population. The popularity of cannabis and its derivatives may lead, and often does, to a child’s exposure to cannabis both in utero and through breastfeeding by a drug-consuming mother. Prenatal exposure to cannabis has been associated with an altered rate of mental development and significant changes in nervous system functioning. However, the understanding of mechanisms of its action on developing the human CNS is still lacking. We investigated the effect of continuous exposure to cannabinoids on developing human neurons, mimicking the prenatal exposure by drug-consuming mother. Two human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) lines were induced to differentiate into neuronal cells and exposed for 37 days to cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9-THC, and two SCs, THJ-018 and EG-018. Both Δ9-THC and SC, at 10 μM, promote precocious neuronal and glial differentiation, while CBD at the same concentration is neurotoxic. Neurons exposed to Δ9-THC and SC show abnormal functioning of voltage-gated calcium channels when stimulated by extracellular potassium. In sum, all studied substances have a profound impact on the developing neurons, highlighting the importance of thorough research on the impact of prenatal exposure to natural and SC.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z Simona Federica Spampinato Sara Merlo Evelina Fagone Mary Fruciano Yasuteru Sano Takashi Kanda Maria Angela Sortino Background: In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuronal degeneration is associated with gliosis and infiltration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which participate in neuroinflammation. Defects at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitate PBMCs migration towards the central nervous system (CNS) and in particular CD4+ T cells have been found in areas severely affected in AD. However, the role of T cells, once they migrate into the CNS, is not well defined. CD4+ cells interact with astrocytes able to release several factors and cytokines that can modulate T cell polarization; similarly, astrocytic properties are modulated after interaction with T cells.

Methods: In in vitro models, astrocytes were primed with β-amyloid (Aβ; 2.5 μM, 5 h) and then co-cultured with magnetically isolated CD4+ cells. Cytokines expression was evaluated both in co-cultured CD4+ cells and astrocytes. The effects of this crosstalk were further evaluated by co-culturing CD4+ cells with the neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cell line and astrocytes with endothelial cells.

Results足球365比分网站: The pattern of cytokines and trophic factors expressed by CD4+ cells were strongly modulated in the presence of Aβ-primed astrocytes. Specifically, the percentage of IL-4+ and IFNγ+ CD4+ cells was significantly increased and reduced, respectively. Further, increased BDNF mRNA levels were observed in CD4+ cells. When SH-SY5Y cells were co-cultured with astrocyte-conditioned CD4+ cells and exposed to Aβ, the reduction of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin was prevented with a BDNF-dependent mechanism. In astrocytes co-cultured with CD4+ cells, reduced mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF were observed. This was paralleled by the prevention of the reduction of claudin-5 when astrocytes were co-cultured with endothelial cells.

Conclusion: Following Aβ exposure, there exists reciprocal crosstalk between infiltrating peripheral cells and astrocytes that in turn affects not only endothelial function and thus BBB properties, but also neuronal behavior. Since astrocytes are the first cells that lymphocytes interact with and are among the principal players in neuroinflammation occurring in AD, understanding this crosstalk may disclose new potential targets of intervention in the treatment of neurodegeneration.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z Juan-Carlos Cerpa Alain R. Marchand Yoan Salafranque Jean-Rémi Pape Eric J. Kremer Etienne Coutureau Techniques that allow the manipulation of specific neural circuits have greatly increased in the past few years. DREADDs (Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) provide an elegant way to manipulate individual brain structures and/or neural circuits, including neuromodulatory pathways. Considerable efforts have been made to increase cell-type specificity of DREADD expression while decreasing possible limitations due to multiple viral vectors injections. In line with this, a retrograde canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vector carrying a Cre-dependent DREADD cassette has been recently developed. In combination with Cre-driver transgenic animals, the vector allows one to target neuromodulatory pathways with cell-type specificity. In the present study, we specifically targeted catecholaminergic pathways by injecting the vector in knock-in rat line containing Cre recombinase cassette under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. We assessed the efficacy of infection of the nigrostriatal pathway and the catecholaminergic pathways ascending to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and found cell-type-specific DREADD expression.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-07-02T00:00:00Z Md. Abdul Hannan Raju Dash Abdullah Al Mamun Sohag Md. Nazmul Haque Il Soo Moon Oxidative stress (OS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of several brain-related disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and ischemic stroke, which are the major causes of dementia. The Nrf2-ARE (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element antioxidant) system, the primary cellular defense against OS, plays an essential role in neuroprotection by regulating the expressions of antioxidant molecules and enzymes. However, simultaneous events resulting in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and deregulation of the Nrf2-ARE system damage essential cell components and cause loss of neuron structural and functional integrity. On the other hand, TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) signaling, a classical neurotrophin signaling pathway, regulates neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, which play pivotal roles in memory and cognition. Also, TrkB signaling, specifically the TrkB/PI3K/Akt (TrkB/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B) pathway promotes the activation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and thus, confers neuroprotection against OS. However, the TrkB signaling pathway is also known to be downregulated in brain disorders due to lack of neurotrophin support. Therefore, activations of TrkB and the Nrf2-ARE signaling system offer a potential approach to the design of novel therapeutic agents for brain disorders. Here, we briefly overview the development of OS and the association between OS and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury. We propose the cellular antioxidant defense and TrkB signaling-mediated cell survival systems be considered pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, and review the literature on the neuroprotective effects of phytochemicals that can co-activate these neuronal defense systems.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z Ling Hu Mei-Xue Dong Yan-Ling Huang Chang-Qi Lu Qian Qian Chun-Cheng Zhang Xiao-Min Xu Yang Liu Guang-Hui Chen You-Dong Wei Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly with a pathogenesis that remains unclear. We aimed to explore its pathogenesis through plasma integrated metabolomics and proteomics analysis. The clinical data of consecutively recruited PD patients and healthy controls were assessed. Fasting plasma samples were obtained and analyzed using metabolomics and proteomics methods. After that, differentially expressed metabolites and proteins were identified for further bioinformatics analysis. No significant difference was found in the clinical data between these two groups. Eighty-three metabolites were differentially expressed in PD patients identified by metabolomics analysis. These metabolites were predominately lipid and lipid-like molecules (63%), among which 25% were sphingolipids. The sphingolipid metabolism pathway was enriched and tended to be activated in the following KEGG pathway analysis. According to the proteomics analysis, forty proteins were identified to be differentially expressed, seven of which were apolipoproteins. Furthermore, five of the six top ranking Gene Ontology terms from cellular components and eleven of the other fourteen Gene Ontology terms from biological processes were directly associated with lipid metabolism. In KEGG pathway analysis, the five enriched pathways were also significantly related with lipid metabolism (p < 0.05). Overall, Parkinson’s disease is associated with plasma lipid metabolic disturbance, including an activated sphingolipid metabolism and decreased apolipoproteins.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z Qingxia Chen Jingjia Yan Wenji Xie Wenqin Xie Meijun Li Yanle Ye Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles

Ketamine, which is widely used in anesthesia, can induce cortical neurotoxicity in patients. This study aims to investigate the effects of long non-coding RNA LINC00641 on the ketamine-induced neural injury.

Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles

In this study, rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) were used as a cell model and Sprague–Dawley postnatal day 7 rats were used for experiments in vivo足球365比分网站. Ketamine-induced aberrant expression levels of LINC00641, miR-497-5p and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were examined by qRT-PCR. The effects of LINC00641 and miR-497-5p on ketamine-induced neural injury were then examined by MTT assays and TUNEL analysis. In addition, the activity of ROS and caspase-3 was measured. The regulatory relationships between LINC00641 and miR-497-5p, miR-497-5p and BDNF were detected by dual-luciferase reporter assay, respectively.

Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles

足球365比分网站Ketamine induced the apoptosis of PC12 cells, accompanied by down-regulation of LINC00641 and BDNF, and up-regulation of miR-497-5p. LINC00641 overexpression enhanced the resistance to the apoptosis of PC12 cells, while transfection of miR-497-5p had opposite effects. Furthermore, LINC00641 could bind to miR-497-5p and reduce its expression, but indirectly increase the BDNF expression, which was considered as a protective factor in neural injury and activated TrkB/PI3K/Akt pathway.

Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles

足球365比分网站Collectively, LINC00641/miR-497-5p/BDNF axis was validated to be an important signaling pathway in modulating ketamine-induced neural injury.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z Dong Zhang Hongchao Men Ludi Zhang Xiangxin Gao Jingjing Wang Leying Li Qiaoying Zhu Hailin Zhang Zhanfeng Jia M/Kv7 potassium channels play a key role in regulation of neuronal excitability. Modulation of neuronal excitability of primary sensory neurons determines the itch sensation induced by a variety of itch-causing substances including chloroquine (CQ). In the present study, we demonstrate that suppression of M/Kv7 channel activity contributes to generation of itch in mice. CQ enhances excitability of the primary sensory neurons through inhibiting M/Kv7 potassium currents in a Ca2+ influx-dependent manner. Specific M/Kv足球365比分网站7 channel opener retigabine (RTG) or tannic acid (TA) not only reverses the CQ-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability but also suppresses the CQ-induced itch behavior. Systemic application of RTG or TA also significantly inhibits the itch behavior induced by a variety of pruritogens. Taken together, our findings provide novel insight into the molecular basis of CQ-induced itch sensation in mammals that can be applied to the development of strategies to mitigate itch behavior.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z Shin-ichi Hisanaga Ran Wei Anni Huo Mineko Tomomura 足球365比分网站Neurons extend long processes known as axons and dendrites, through which they communicate with each other. The neuronal circuits formed by the axons and dendrites are the structural basis of higher brain functions. The formation and maintenance of these processes are essential for physiological brain activities. Membrane components, both lipids, and proteins, that are required for process formation are supplied by vesicle transport. Intracellular membrane trafficking is regulated by a family of Rab small GTPases. A group of Rabs regulating endosomal trafficking has been studied mainly in nonpolarized culture cell lines, and little is known about their regulation in polarized neurons with long processes. As shown in our recent study, lemur tail (former tyrosine) kinase 1 (LMTK1), an as yet uncharacterized Ser/Thr kinase associated with Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, modulates the formation of axons, dendrites, and spines in cultured primary neurons. LMTK1 knockdown or knockout (KO) or the expression of a kinase-negative mutant stimulates the transport of endosomal vesicles in neurons, leading to the overgrowth of axons, dendrites, and spines. More recently, we found that LMTK1 regulates TBC1D9B Rab11 GAP and proposed the Cdk5/p35-LMTK1-TBC1D9B-Rab11 pathway as a signaling cascade that regulates endosomal trafficking. Here, we summarize the biochemical, cell biological, and physiological properties of LMTK1.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z Rong Chen Xing Cao Wenxiu Luo Haodi Yang Xinya Luo Juming Yu Jiaming Luo Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) that currently does not have any effective treatment. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is often employed as a model to mimic the clinical manifestations of MS, mainly CNS demyelination. Coagulation is known to participate in crosstalk with inflammation and autoimmunity. We herein explored the correlation between the coagulation cascade and CNS immune diseases in vitro using primary astrocytes isolated from mice and in vivo using a mouse model of EAE. We showed that dabigatran, a clinical oral anti-coagulant drug, suppressed the thrombin-induced activation of astrocytes, and the underlying mechanisms are related to the activity of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and sphingosine kinases (SphKs). Importantly, dabigatran effectively recovered neurological function, reduced inflammation in the spinal cord, and prevented spinal cord demyelination caused by EAE. We suggest that dabigatran, a specific inhibitor of thrombin, antagonized the effect of thrombin in astrocytes by limiting the activation of PAR-1, in turn downregulating SphK1 and disrupting S1P receptor signaling. These findings reveal critical information about the relationship between coagulation mechanisms and CNS immune diseases and will contribute to the clinical translation and development of therapeutic strategies against MS.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z Xiao-Fan Zhang Ting Chen Aifen Yan Jia Xiao Yong-Li Xie Jing Yuan Pin Chen Anderson On-Lam Wong Yang Zhang Nai-Kei Wong Background: Altered white matter connectivity, as evidenced by pervasive microstructural changes in myelination and axonal integrity in neuroimaging studies, has been implicated in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related neurodevelopmental conditions such as schizophrenia. Despite an increasing appreciation that such white matter disconnectivity is linked to social behavior deficits, virtually no etiologically meaningful myelin-related genes have been identified in oligodendrocytes, the key myelinating cells in the CNS, to furnish an account on the causes. The impact of neurodevelopmental perturbations during pregnancy such as maternal immune activation (MIA) on these genes in memory-related neural networks has not been experimentally scrutinized.

Methods: In this study, a mouse model of MIA by the viral dsRNA analog poly(I:C) was employed to mimic the effects of inflammation during pregnancy. Transcriptional expression levels of selected myelin- or oligodendroglia-related genes implicated in schizophrenia or ASD development were analyzed by in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with brain samples from MIA and control groups. The analysis focused on SOX-10 (SRY-related HMG-box 10), MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein), and Tf (transferrin) expression in the hippocampus and the surrounding memory-related cortical regions in either hemisphere.

Results: Specifically, ISH reveals that in the brain of prenatal poly(I:C)-exposed mouse offspring in the MIA model (gestation day 9), mRNA expression of the genes SOX10, MAG and Tf were generally reduced in the limbic system including the hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex and parahippocampal gyrus on either side of the hemispheres. qRT-PCR further confirms the reduction of SOX10, MAG, and Tf expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, sensory cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus.

Conclusions: Our present results provide direct evidence that prenatal exposure to poly(I:C) elicits profound and long-term changes in transcript level and spatial distribution of myelin-related genes in multiple neocortical and limbic regions, notably the hippocampus and its surrounding memory-related neural networks. Our work demonstrates the potential utility of oligodendroglia-related genes as biomarkers for modeling neurodevelopmental disorders, in agreement with the hypothesis that MIA during pregnancy could lead to compromised white matter connectivity in ASD.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z Anna Pancho Tania Aerts Manuela D. Mitsogiannis Eve Seuntjens 足球365比分网站Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are cell adhesion molecules that belong to the cadherin superfamily, and are subdivided into clustered (cPcdhs) and non-clustered Pcdhs (ncPcdhs) in vertebrates. In this review, we summarize their discovery, expression mechanisms, and roles in neuronal development and cancer, thereby highlighting the context-dependent nature of their actions. We furthermore provide an extensive overview of current structural knowledge, and its implications concerning extracellular interactions between cPcdhs, ncPcdhs, and classical cadherins. Next, we survey the known molecular action mechanisms of Pcdhs, emphasizing the regulatory functions of proteolytic processing and domain shedding. In addition, we outline the importance of Pcdh intracellular domains in the regulation of downstream signaling cascades, and we describe putative Pcdh interactions with intracellular molecules including components of the WAVE complex, the Wnt pathway, and apoptotic cascades. Our overview combines molecular interaction data from different contexts, such as neural development and cancer. This comprehensive approach reveals potential common Pcdh signaling hubs, and points out future directions for research. Functional studies of such key factors within the context of neural development might yield innovative insights into the molecular etiology of Pcdh-related neurodevelopmental disorders.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-26T00:00:00Z Lorraine Siebold Amy C. Krueger Jonathan A. Abdala Johnny D. Figueroa Brenda Bartnik-Olson Barbara Holshouser Christopher G. Wilson Stephen Ashwal Aim: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality/morbidity and is associated with chronic neuroinflammation. Melanocortin receptor agonists including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ameliorate inflammation and provide a novel therapeutic approach. We examined the effect of long-acting cosyntropin (CoSyn), a synthetic ACTH analog, on the early inflammatory response and functional outcome following experimental TBI.

Methods: The controlled cortical impact model was used to induce TBI in mice. Mice were assigned to injury and treatment protocols resulting in four experimental groups including sham + saline, sham + CoSyn, TBI + saline, and TBI + CoSyn. Treatment was administered subcutaneously 3 h post-injury and daily injections were given for up to 7 days post-injury. The early inflammatory response was evaluated at 3 days post-injury through the evaluation of cytokine expression (IL1β and TNFα) and immune cell response. Quantification of immune cell response included cell counts of microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ cells) and neutrophils (MPO+ cells) in the cortex and hippocampus. Behavioral testing (n足球365比分网站 = 10–14 animals/group) included open field (OF) and novel object recognition (NOR) during the first week following injury and Morris water maze (MWM) at 10–15 days post-injury.

Results: Immune cell quantification showed decreased accumulation of Iba1+ cells in the perilesional cortex and CA1 region of the hippocampus for CoSyn-treated TBI animals compared to saline-treated. Reduced numbers of MPO+ cells were also found in the perilesional cortex and hippocampus in CoSyn treated TBI mice compared to their saline-treated counterparts. Furthermore, CoSyn treatment reduced IL1β expression in the cortex of TBI mice. Behavioral testing showed a treatment effect of CoSyn for NOR with CoSyn increasing the discrimination ratio in both TBI and Sham groups, indicating increased memory performance. CoSyn also decreased latency to find platform during the early training period of the MWM when comparing CoSyn to saline-treated TBI mice suggesting moderate improvements in spatial memory following CoSyn treatment.

Conclusion: Reduced microglia/macrophage accumulation and neutrophil infiltration in conjunction with moderate improvements in spatial learning in our CoSyn treated TBI mice suggests a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of CoSyn following TBI.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-25T00:00:00Z Ryan L. O’Hare Doig Sreya Santhakumar Brooke Fehily Sushmitha Raja Tanya Solomon Carole A. Bartlett Melinda Fitzgerald Stuart I. Hodgetts Reducing the extent of secondary degeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI) is necessary to preserve function, but treatment options have thus far been limited. A combination of the ion channel inhibitors Lomerizine (Lom), YM872 and oxATP, to inhibit voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptors, and purinergic P2X7 receptors respectively, effectively limits secondary consequences of injury in in vitro and in vivo models of CNS injury. Here, we investigated the efficacy of these inhibitors in a clinically relevant model of SCI. Fischer (F344) rats were subjected to a moderate (150 kD) contusive SCI at thoracic level T10 and assessed at 2 weeks or 10 weeks post-injury. Lom was delivered orally twice daily and YM872 and oxATP were delivered via osmotic mini-pump implanted at the time of SCI until 2 weeks following injury. Open field locomotion analysis revealed that treatment with the three inhibitors in combination improved the rate of functional recovery of the hind limb (compared to controls) as early as 1-day post-injury, with beneficial effects persisting to 14 days post-injury, while all three inhibitors were present. At 2 weeks following combinatorial treatment, the functional improvement was associated with significantly decreased cyst size, increased immunoreactivity of β-III tubulin+ve axons, myelin basic protein, and reduced lipid peroxidation by-products, and increased CC1+ve oligodendrocytes and NG2+ve/PDGFα+ve足球365比分网站 oligodendrocyte progenitor cell densities, compared to vehicle-treated SCI animals. The combination of Lom, oxATP, and YM872 shows preclinical promise for control of secondary degeneration following SCI, and further investigation of long-term sustained treatment is warranted.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-24T00:00:00Z Isidro Ferrer Pol Andrés-Benito Julia Sala-Jarque Vanessa Gil José Antonio del Rio Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a common 4R-tauopathy, causing or contributing to cognitive impairment in the elderly. AGD is characterized neuropathologically by pre-tangles in neurons, dendritic swellings called grains, threads, thorn-shaped astrocytes, and coiled bodies in oligodendrocytes in the limbic system. AGD has a characteristic pattern progressively involving the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, presubiculum, subiculum, hypothalamic nuclei, temporal cortex, and neocortex and brainstem, thus suggesting that argyrophilic grain pathology is a natural model of tau propagation. One series of WT mice was unilaterally inoculated in the hippocampus with sarkosyl-insoluble and sarkosyl-soluble fractions from “pure” AGD at the age of 3 or 7/12 months and killed 3 or 7 months later. Abnormal hyper-phosphorylated tau deposits were found in ipsilateral hippocampal neurons, grains (dots) in the hippocampus, and threads, dots and coiled bodies in the fimbria, as well as the ipsilateral and contralateral corpus callosum. The extension of lesions was wider in animals surviving 7 months compared with those surviving 3 months. Astrocytic inclusions were not observed at any time. Tau deposits were mainly composed of 4Rtau, but also 3Rtau. For comparative purposes, another series of WT mice was inoculated with sarkosyl-insoluble fractions from primary age-related tauopathy (PART), a pure neuronal neurofibrillary tangle 3Rtau + 4Rtau tauopathy involving the deep temporal cortex and limbic system. Abnormal hyper-phosphorylated tau deposits were found in neurons in the ipsilateral hippocampus, coiled bodies and threads in the fimbria, and the ipsilateral and contralateral corpus callosum, which extended with time along the anterior-posterior axis and distant regions such as hypothalamic nuclei and nuclei of the septum when comparing mice surviving 7 months with mice surviving 3 months. Astrocytic inclusions were not observed. Tau deposits were mainly composed of 4Rtau and 3Rtau. These results show the capacity for seeding and spreading of AGD tau and PART tau in the brain of WT mouse, and suggest that characteristics of host tau, in addition to those of inoculated tau, are key to identifying commonalities and differences between human tauopathies and corresponding murine models.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-23T00:00:00Z Gian Luca Vita M’Hammed Aguennouz Francesca Polito Rosaria Oteri Massimo Russo Luca Gentile Cristina Barbagallo Marco Ragusa Carmelo Rodolico Rosa Maria Di Giorgio Antonio Toscano Giuseppe Vita Anna Mazzeo Transthyretin variant amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid in many organs, mostly causing a sensory-motor neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and dysautonomia. The aim of the study was to report microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile identified in the blood of ATTRv patients. Ten ATTRv patients, 10 asymptomatic carriers of transthyretin variant (TTRv), 10 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and 10 healthy controls were studied. Human Schwann cells cultures were used to study the regulatory effects of miR-150-5p on the expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF). ATTRv patients had 33 miRNAs up-regulated and 48 down-regulated versus healthy controls; 9 miRNAs were up-regulated and 30 down-regulated versus CMT patients; 19 miRNAs were up-regulated and 38 down-regulated versus asymptomatic TTRv carriers. Twelve out of the 19 upregulated miRNAs had a fold increase higher than 100. The validation experiment indicated miR-150-5p as a valuable biomarker to differentiate ATTRv patients from asymptomatic TTRv carriers (AUC: 0.9728; p < 0.0001). Schwann cells culture model demonstrated that miR-150-5p is a powerful negative regulator of CREB, BDNF, and NGF genes. Identification of deregulated miRNAs can help in understanding the complex pathomechamism underlying the development of ATTRv and related multisystemic pathology. Further investigations are needed on the role of circulating miR-150-5p to predict the shift of TTRv carriers from an asymptomatic status to symptoms appearance.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-23T00:00:00Z Matteo Rigon Sarah Janice Hörner Tatjana Straka Karen Bieback Norbert Gretz Mathias Hafner Rüdiger Rudolf Amongst other approaches, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) have recently been tested with respect to their regenerative capacity for treatment of neuromuscular disorders. While beneficial effects of ASCs on muscle recovery were observed previously, their impact on regeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) is unclear. Here, we used a murine glycerol damage model to study disruption and regeneration of NMJs and to evaluate the effects of systemic application of ASCs on muscle and NMJ recovery. In mice that were not treated with ASCs, a differential response of NMJ pre- and post-synapses to glycerol-induced damage was observed. While post-synapses were still present in regions that were necrotic and lacking actin and dystrophin, pre-synapses disappeared soon in those affected areas. Partial regeneration of NMJs occurred within 11 days after damage. ASC treatment slightly enhanced NMJ recovery and reduced the loss of presynaptic sites, but also led to a late phase of muscle necrosis and fibrosis. In summary, the results suggest a differential sensitivity of NMJ pre- and post-synapses to glycerol-induced muscle damage and that the use of ASC for the treatment of neuromuscular disorders needs further careful evaluation.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-18T00:00:00Z Sabah H. El-Ghaiesh Hoda I. Bahr Afaf T. Ibrahiem Doaa Ghorab Suliman Y. Alomar Noha E. Farag Sawsan A. Zaitone 足球365比分网站Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Many studies have documented the role of oxidative stress and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of PD. Metformin (MTF) is an antidiabetic medication and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulator that has shown antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties in many disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of MTF in a mouse model of rotenone-prompted PD with a highlight on its influence on the AMPK/forkhead box transcription factor O3 (FOXO3) pathway and striatal angiogenesis. In the running study, PD was induced in mice using repeated doses of rotenone and concomitantly treated with MTF 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 18 days. Rotarod and pole tests were used to examine the animals’ motor functionality. After that, animals were sacrificed, and brains were isolated and processed for immunohistochemical investigations or biochemical analyses. Oxidant stress and angiogenic markers were measured, including reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2), hemoxygenase-1, thioredoxin, AMPK, FOXO3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Results indicated that MTF improved animals’ motor function, improved striatal glutathione, Nrf2, hemoxygenase-1, and thioredoxin. Furthermore, MTF upregulated AMPK-FOXO3 proteins and reduced VEGF and cleaved caspase 3. MTF also increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)–stained neurons in the substantia nigra neurons and in striatal neuronal terminals. This study is the first to highlight that the neuroprotective role of MTF is mediated through activation of AMPK-FOXO3 signaling and inhibition of the proangiogenic factor, VEGF. Further studies are warranted to confirm this mechanism in other models of PD and neurodegenerative diseases.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-18T00:00:00Z Abraham J. Cisneros-Mejorado Alberto Pérez-Samartín María Domercq Rogelio O. Arellano Miroslav Gottlieb Friedrich Koch-Nolte Carlos Matute Shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the brain induces the release of glutamate and ATP that can cause excitotoxicity and contribute to neuronal and glial damage. Our understanding of the mechanisms of ATP release and toxicity in cerebrovascular diseases is incomplete. This review aims at summarizing current knowledge about the participation of key elements in the ATP-mediated deleterious effects in these pathologies. This includes pannexin-1 hemichannels, calcium homeostasis modulator-1 (CALHM1), purinergic P2X7 receptors, and other intermediaries of CNS injury downstream of ATP release. Available data together with recent pharmacological developments in purinergic signaling may constitute a new opportunity to translate preclinical findings into more effective therapies in cerebrovascular diseases.

]]> Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | New and Recent Articles 2020-06-18T00:00:00Z Junhui Chen Yuhai Wang Jiyun Wu Jiaji Yang Mingchang Li Qianxue Chen Acute central nervous system (CNS) disease is very common and with high mortality. Many basic studies have confirmed the molecular mechanism of early brain injury (EBI) after acute CNS disease. Neuron death and dysfunction are important reasons for the neurological dysfunction in patients with acute CNS disease. Ferroptosis is a nonapoptotic form of cell death, the classical characteristic of which is based on the iron-dependent accumulation of toxic lipid reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have indicated that this mechanism is critical in the cell death events observed in many diseases, including cancer, tumor resistance, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Ferroptosis may also play a very important role in EBI after acute CNS disease. Unresolved issues include the relationship between ferroptosis and other forms of cell death after acute CNS disease, the specific molecular mechanisms of EBI, the strategies to activate or inhibit ferroptosis to achieve desirable attenuation of EBI, and the need to find new molecular markers of ferroptosis that can be used to detect and study this process in vivo足球365比分网站 after acute CNS disease.